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Gum Disease

Gum disease is also known as periodontal disease, and is an infection of the

gums surrounding your teeth. Gum disease is one of the top reasons for

tooth loss in adults, and because it is virtually pain free, many patients do

not know they have the disease. During each regular checkup, your dentist

will check for signs of periodontal disease by measuring the space between

your teeth and gums.

What Causes Gum Disease?

Gum disease is caused by a buildup of plaque (a sticky form of bacteria that

forms on the teeth). If the plaque is not removed (by flossing, brushing, and

regular dental checkups), it will continue to build up and create toxins that can damage the gums. Periodontal disease forms just below the gum line and creates small pockets that separate the gums from the teeth. Periodontal disease has two stages: gingivitis and periodontitis.

  • Gingivitis — This is the early stage of gum disease, when the gums become red and swollen, and bleed easily. At this stage, the disease is treatable and can usually be eliminated by daily brushing and flossing.

  • Periodontitis — If left untreated, gingivitis will advance into periodontitis, and the gums and bone that support the teeth will become seriously and irreversibly damaged. Gums infected with periodontitis can cause teeth to become loose, fall out, or be removed by a dentist.

Certain factors can increase a patient's risk of developing periodontal disease, including:

  • Smoking or using chewing tobacco

  • Diabetes

  • Certain types of medication such as steroids, anti-epilepsy drugs, cancer therapy drugs, calcium channel blockers, and oral contraceptives

  • Bridges that no longer fit properly

  • Crooked teeth

  • Old fillings

  • Pregnancy

While it is possible to have periodontal disease and not know it, some symptoms can include:

  • Gums that bleed easily

  • Red, swollen, tender gums

  • Gums that have pulled away from the teeth

  • Persistent bad breath or bad taste

  • Pus between your teeth and gums

  • Permanent teeth that are loose or separating

  • Any change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite

  • Any change in the fit of partial dentures

Treating Gum Disease

Treatments for gum disease can vary depending on the severity of each individual case. Typical treatments include:

  • Non-surgical treatments such as at-home periodontal trays, and scaling and root planing (deep cleaning)

  • Periodontal surgery and laser gum surgery

  • Dental implants

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